Breaking glass is definitely a physical change. You can see the results of your action immediately, and the glass is definitely in a different state than it was before. But is it a chemical change?
Well, technically, breaking glass is a chemical change. When glass breaks, the bonds between the atoms that make up the glass are broken. So technically, yes, breaking glass is a chemical change.
But in terms of common usage, we usually think of chemical changes as being
Most people think of glass as being a solid; however, it is actually a very slowly flowing liquid. When it is first formed, it is in a highly viscous state, and over time it flows very slowly. This flow is so slow that we do not notice it happening on a human timescale, which is why we tend to think of glass as being a solid.
However, when glass is heated or cooled rapidly (such as when it is dropped), the flow of the glass can become much faster, and the material can break. This type of breakage is known as thermal shock and it can happen to any material that experiences a sudden change in temperature.
When glass breaks, the molecules that make up the material are brought to an abrupt stop. This sudden change in motion causes the molecules to collide with each other and break apart from each other. In other words, when glass breaks, it undergoes a physical change.
What is glass?
Glass is a material that is typically hard, brittle, and transparent. It is made by heating materials, such as sand and soda, to extremely high temperatures and then cooling them very rapidly.
Glass can be recycled over and over again without any loss in quality, making it a very sustainable material.
The physical properties of glass
Glass is an amorphous solid, which means it lacks the long-range, repeating molecular structure of a crystalline solid. The physical properties of glass arise from the random, disordered nature of its atoms. The chemical composition of glass is homogeneous throughout, but it can contain different types of impurities that affect its physical properties.
Glass is transparent to visible light, but it absorbs some ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The amount of UV absorption depends on the type of glass and the wavelength of the light. Glass can be coloured by adding metal oxides during manufacturing. For example, iron oxide produces a green colour, while cobalt oxide produces blue glass.
Glass is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. This means that it is a good insulator and can be used in containers to store hot or cold liquids. Glass also has a high resistance to breakage and fragmentation.
The physical properties of glass make it ideal for many applications, including windows, drinking glasses, optical fibers and bulletproof windows.
The chemical properties of glass
Glass is a non-crystalline, amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are “silicate glasses” based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silicate glasses that exist; soda-lime-silica glass comprises about 75% by weight of flat panel display glass produced worldwide.
How is glass made?
Glass is a non-crystalline, or amorphous, solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, optics and optoelectronics.
The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of manufactured glass are “silicate glasses” based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in drinking containers (bottles and glasses). Of the many silica-based glasses that exist:
-Soda–lime glasses, by far the largest group of traditional glass products are composed of approximately 75 wt% silica (SiO2) with the addition of sodium oxide (Na2O) from soda ash (“sodium carbonate”, Na2CO3), calcium oxide (“calcite”, CaO), or limestone.
-Borosilicate glasses contain boron trioxide as a significant extra constituent.
-Lead glass contains typically 18–40 wt% lead(II) oxide (PbO), while other “specialty glasses” can contain oxides of zinc (ZnO), calcium (CaO) selenium (SeO3), tellurium (TeO2), arsenic (As2O3), antimony(Sb2OA) , phosphorus(PO3) , vanadium(V2OA5 , titanium(TiOA4 , or other elements.
The history of glass
Glass has been around for centuries, and its history is both fascinating and long. The first known use of glass dates back to around 1600 BC, in Mesopotamia. This early glass was probably used for making ornaments and beads. By the time the Roman Empire came to power, glass was being used for a variety of different purposes, including windows, bottles, and tableware.
Glassmaking reached its height during the Medieval period, with stained glass windows becoming increasingly popular in churches and cathedrals. Glassmaking techniques also improved during this time, with the invention of cristallo, a type of clear glass that was much finer than anything that had been created before.
During the Renaissance, Venetian glassmakers perfected the art of creating Murano glass, which is still revered today for its beauty and quality. In the modern era, glass has a wide range of uses, from windows and containers to optical fibers and solar panels.
The uses of glass
Glass is a material that has been used by humans for centuries. It is durable, malleable, and has a wide range of uses.
Glass is made from sand, which is melted and then cooled to create a solid material. Glass can be molded and shaped into a variety of objects, including windows, bottles, and even jewelry.
Glass is often used in home construction because it is strong and can be transparent. This allows natural light to enter a room, making it appear brighter.
Glass can also be used as a reflective surface. Mirrors are made from glass that has been polished to create a smooth surface that reflects light.
Glass is also non-porous, which means it does not absorb liquids or odors. This makes it ideal for storing food and drinks.
The recycling of glass
Glass is one those things that we encounter in our everyday lives without really giving it much thought. But what exactly is glass, and how is it recycled?
Glass is made from a combination of sand, soda ash, limestone and other minerals. The ingredients are melted at high temperatures to form a “molten glass” which is then formed into the desired shape.
One of the reasons why glass can be recycled over and over again is because it doesn’t lose any of its properties in the recycling process. In fact, according to recyclebycity.com, “recycling 1 ton of glass saves 9 gallons of fuel oil and 1,300 pounds of carbon dioxide from being emitted into the atmosphere”.
The recycling process begins with sorting the glass by color. The most common colors used in glass manufacturing are green, clear and brown. Once sorted, the glass is crushed into “cullet” which is then used as raw material in the manufacturing of new glass products.